Educational branch of knowledge is perhaps the most ancient and essentially inseparable from the development of the society. Social progress of mankind has been made possible only because one enters into the life of people took possession of a new generation of productive, social and spiritual experiences of their ancestors and to enrich it, in a more developed form, convey to their offspring. The more evolved and become more complex production, the greater the accumulated scientific knowledge, the increasing importance of special training for the younger generation to life, the growing need in their specially organized education – a deliberate transfer its experience of mankind.
Education and training have become an objective need of the society and have become an essential prerequisite for its development. At a certain stage of development of human society, particularly in the late period of the slave system, when the production of science and made significant development, education stands out as a special social function, ie having special educational institutions, there are persons whose profession is teaching and educating children.
From ancient Greece traces its origins and the term pedagogy, which was fixed as the name of science education.
In ancient Greece teachers were called slaves, which aristocrats entrusted to look after children, to accompany them to school. The Greek word peydagogos (prepaid – child Gogos – lead) is the schoolmaster. Subsequently, the teachers began to call people who are engaged in teaching and training children. From this word gets its name of science education – pedagogy. As a special science pedagogy was first isolated from the system of philosophical knowledge in the early XVII century.
1. The object of knowledge in pedagogy – a man developing as a result of educational relations. The subject of pedagogy – educational relationships underpinning human development.
Pedagogy – the science of educational relations arising in the course of the relationship of education, training and education to self-education, self-education and self-education, aimed at human development. Pedagogy can be defined as the science of translation experience of one generation to experience the other.
Pedagogy – the science of how to educate people on how to help him become spiritually rich, creatively active and quite satisfied with life, to find a balance with nature and society.
Pedagogy is sometimes viewed as a science and an art. When it comes to education, it must be borne in mind that it has two aspects – theoretical and practical. The theoretical aspect of education is the subject of scientific and pedagogical research. In this sense, pedagogy serves as a science is a body of theoretical and methodological ideas on education.
Another thing – the practical educational activities. Its implementation requires the teacher mastery of the relevant educational skills and abilities, which can have varying degrees of perfection and reach the level of teaching art. From a semantic point of view it is necessary to distinguish between pedagogy as theoretical science and practical educational activities as art.
SUBJECT Pedagogy is the study of the essence of the formation and development of the human personality and to the development of the theory and methodology of education as a specially organized educational process. Pedagogy explores the following issues:
• Exploring the nature and patterns of development and identity formation and their impact on education;
• definition of the objectives of education;
• Development of content for education;
• research and development of methods of education.
2. OBJECTIVES OF SCIENCE TEACHING
It is necessary to distinguish between academic and practical problems of pedagogy. The tasks of pedagogy – to conduct research, and practical problems of school, high school – to carry out education, education of schoolchildren and students.
The priority task of teaching science is the task of opening patterns in the fields of education, education, education management and educational systems. Patterns in pedagogy are treated as communication between intentionally created or objectively existing conditions and the results achieved. As the results are the training, development of personality in its specific parameters.
The composition of the permanent tasks of pedagogy includes the objective of the study and synthesis of practice, experience teaching. Vocational education and education work is creative, so any teacher-practitioner accumulates rational means of effective influence on students. Many teachers create original educational technology. However, all examples of the work of teachers can not find their place in the system of pedagogical values without theoretical justification and scientific interpretation. The role of science is to penetrate the essence of the findings reveal that fits personality of the teacher and innovator, is unique, and that lends itself to generalization and can turn into a common heritage.
Among the tasks of the science of education occupy an important place task of developing new methods, tools, forms, systems, training, education, management of educational institutions. In the dictionary of pedagogy, a new concept – Pedagogical Innovation. Due to the fact that in our country there are no laws that perpetuate the copyrights of the developers of educational discoveries, models, attempts to create conditions for a transition to legitimize the authorship of the products pedagogical creativity.
To the important ongoing task of pedagogy accepted to the prediction of the short and long-term future. Without scientific forecasts can not control the educational policy, economics of education, the improvement of the actual teaching activities, control systems. Educational system is characterized by two parameters: it operates at the same time developing. Hence the need to control the operation of educational systems and the management of its development.
One important task of teaching science is objective and implementation of research results into practice.
The task of teaching science – to develop a theoretical, methodological foundations of innovation processes, rational relations theory and practice, the interpenetration of research and practice.
This is the number of continuing problems of pedagogy. Always will study the laws of science, to develop all the new and improved model of learning, analyze teaching experience, look for the shortest way of introduction of emerging scientific developments, to predict the educational structure of the future.
Much richer and more diverse the tasks that arise quickly influenced by the needs and practices of science itself. Many of them are foreseeable, but need to quickly find solutions. Examples of such tasks may include: the creation of libraries of e-books, the development of standards for teacher professionalism, identification of students choosing a profession, an analysis of the nature of the conflicts in the typical teacher-student relationship, etc.
3. SYSTEM OF TEACHING SCIENCE
The level of development of any science is judged by the degree of differentiation of her research and by the diversity of the relations of science with others, due to which there are borderline disciplines.
The system of pedagogical sciences include:
1. General pedagogy, exploring the basic laws of education.
2. History of Education, studying the development of pedagogical ideas and education in different historical periods.
3. Comparative education, exploring the patterns of functioning and development of educational and training systems in different countries by comparing and finding similarities and differences.
4. Age teaching, studying the features of a person’s upbringing at various age levels. Depending on the age characteristics distinguish the pre-preschool, preschool pedagogy pedagogy of high school, pedagogy secondary education, higher education pedagogy, pedagogy of vocational education, adult pedagogy (androgogics).
5. Special education that develops the theoretical foundations, principles, methods, forms and means of education and training per person (children and adults) who have physical disabilities. Special education (defectology) splits into a number of sectors: education and training issues deaf and blind children and adults engaged in on areas, blind and visually impaired – typhlopedagogy, the mentally retarded – oligophrenopedagogy, children and adults with the disorder of speech – speech therapy.